★1. SLA (Second language acquisition) is the process by which a language other than the mother tongue is learnt in a natural setting or in a classroom. ★2. Acquisition vs. Learning (Krashen1982)
Acquisition implicit, subconscious informal situations uses grammatical 'feel' depends on attitude stable order of acquisition Learning explicit, conscious formal situations uses grammatical rules depends on aptitude simple to complex order of learning Acquisition refers to the learning of a language unconsciously under natural settings where learners pay attention only to the meanings or contents rather than forms or grammars.
Learning refers to the learning of a language consciously under educational settings where learners mainly pay attention to forms or grammars.
3. Factors affecting SLA Social factors (external factors) Learner factors (internal factors)
Social factors (external factors)
Language policy and the attitude of the public sector;
With the trend of globalization of the world economy , it is widely accepted among educators and national leaders that proficiency in another language is an indispensable quality of educated people
Learner factors (internal factors)
Motivation ，Age ，Learning strategy
4. Behaviorist learning theory
Behaviorist learning theory is a general theory of learning (i.e. it applies to all kinds of learning, not just language learning).
It views learning as the formation of habits. The association of a particular response with a particular stimulus constituted a habit. It is formed when a particular stimulus became regularly linked with a particular response.
When applied to SLA, the process of second language acquisition is regarded as a process of habit formation.
5. The causes of errors according to behaviorism
Differences between the first and second language create learning difficulty which results in errors.
Behaviorist learning theory predicts that transfer will take place from the first to the second language. Transfer will be negative when there is proactive inhibition. In this case errors will result.
Errors, according to behaviorist theory, were the result of non-learning, rather than wrong learning.
The means used to predict potential errors by behaviorists is Contrastive Analysis.
Language was viewed as a coded system consisting of structurally related elements (phonemes, morphemes, words, structures and sentence patterns) 7. What is contrastive analysis (CA)?
Contrastive analysis is an inductive investigative approach based on the distinctive elements in a language. It involves the comparison of two or more languages or subsystems of languages in order to determine both the differences and similarities between them. It could also be done within one language. Contrastive analysis can be both theoretical and applied according to varied purposes.
8. Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH)
Contrastive analysis is a way of comparing languages in order to determine potential errors for the ultimate purpose of isolating what needs to be learned and what does not need to be learned in an L2 situation.
According to CAH, L2 errors are result of differences between the learner?s first language and the target language. The strong form of the hypothesis claims that these differences can be used to predict all errors that will occur. The weak form of the hypothesis claims that these differences can be used to identify some out of the total errors that actually arise.
9.difference vs difficulty
“Difference” is a linguistic concept, whereas “difficulty” is a psychological concept. Therefore, the level of learning difficulty cannot be inferred directly from the degree of difference between two language systems.
10. Definition of Error analysis (EA)
the study and analysis of the errors made by second and foreign language learners (Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics, p.96).
It involves collecting samples of learner language, identifying the errors in these samples, describing these errors, classifying them according to their hypothesized causes, and evaluating theirs seriousness.
11. Interlingual error: deviated forms resulting from the interference of one’s L1, or the negative transfer of one?s mother tongue.
Intralingual error: ①deviated forms in learner language that reflect learners? transitional competence and which are the results of such learning process as overgeneralization. ②confusion of L2 rules
12. Factors causing errors
1. Language transfer 2. Overgeneralization 3. Learner differences
3. Strategies in L2 learning
5. Strategies of L2 communication
e.g. The two students changed eyes and eyebrows in class. 13. Types of learner strategy
Learning strategy, Production strategy 表達策略 Communication strategy:
Communication strategies are employed when learners are faced with the task of communicating meanings for which they lack the requisite linguistic knowledge. Typical communication strategies are paraphrase and mime.
14. Classifications of learning strategy(Cohen 2006)
(2) By function: Metacognitive; Cognitive; Socio-affective
(3) By skill: listening, speaking, reading, writing, vocabulary, or translation strategies. 15. Meta-cognitive strategies
Meta-cognitive strategy is the planning for learning, thinking about the learning process, monitoring of one?s production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed.
16. Cognitive strategies
Cognitive strategies refer to the steps or operations used in learning or problem-solving that require direct analysis, transformation, or synthesis of learning material.
Repetition, Resourcing, Directed physical response, Translation, Grouping, Note-taking , Deduction Recombination, Imagery, Auditory representation, Key word, Contextualization, Elaboration, Transfer, Inferencing
17. Individual learner variables
group dynamics; attitudes to the teacher and course materials; learning techniques General factors:
age; aptitude; cognitive style; motivation; personality
Integrative motivation 融合型動機is present in learners who identify with the target culture, would like to resemble members of the target culture and who would like to participate in the target culture. It is assumed to be based in the personality of the learner.
Instrumental orientation工具型動機refers to those cases where the learners are interested in learning the language for the possible benefits, that is, the learner?s goal is functional.
Resultative motivation:因果性動機 Learners? motivation is strongly affected by their achievement.
Intrinsic motivation:內在興趣動機 Motivation as intrinsic interest. Motivation as a multi-componential construct:
Motivation = effort + desire to achieve goal + attitudes
Task motivation: the interest felt by the learner in performing different learning tasks.
★ 19. Definition –interlanguage
Interlanguage is the approximate language system that the learner constructs for use in communication through the target language. (Larry Selinker)
It is independent of both the learner?s first language and the target language.
It suggests that learners? language is between L1 AND L2 and that it is a continuum along which all learners traverse.
★20.Definition of fossilization
Fossilization refers to the state in which the second language learners stop to learning when their internalized rule system contains rules different from the target language. That is to say, the interlanguage stops evolving towards the TL. 21. Classification of fossilization
Temporary fossilization: the phenomenon is alterable under certain conditions. Permanent fossilization
This means the learner?s language stops evolving forever. Because stable stage is not real fossilization, so there is no real permanent fossilization. 22. Causes of fossilization
Internal: Motivation; Communicative needs; Acquisition device External: Communicative pressure Lack of learning opportunities Feedback:
positive cognitive feedbacks cause fossilization ; (e.g. “Oh,I see”)
negative feedbacks help to prevent fossilization. (e.g. “I don?t understand you” )
★23. Definition of UG
Cook(1985) summarizing the Chomskyan position, defines ?universal grammar? as ?the properties inherent in the human mind?. Universal grammar consists of a set of general principles that apply to all language rather than a set of particular rules.
Markedness refers to the idea that some linguistic structures are ?special? or ?less natural? or ?less basic? than others.
Linguists working in the Chomskyan school suggest that linguistic rules can either be part of the core grammar (i.e. the universal rules) or be part of the periphery.
Core rules are considered to be unmarked and therefore easily acquired. Periphery roles are considered to be and therefore different to learn. 25. Krashen?s Monitor Model
Krashen?s monitor model mainly consists of the following five hypothses:
(1) Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis:
there are two kinds of ways of learning a second language ,i.e., acquisition and learning.
(2) Natural Order Hypothesis:
SLA follows a universal route that is not influenced by factors such as the learners? first language, age, and the context (classroom or natural setting).
Errors are developmental and are a natural byproduct of learning – tolerate them. Allow learners to make errors and do not correct them
(3) The Input Hypothesis c
It laims a move along the developmental continuum by receiving comprehensible input. We acquire, only when we understand the structure that is “a little beyond” where we are now Comprehensible input is defined as L2 input just beyond the Learner?s current L2 competence, in terms of its syntactic complexity. If a learner?s current competence is i then comprehensible input is i+1. Input which is either too simple (i) or too complex (i+2/3/4…) will not be useful for acquisition.
(4) The affective filter hypothesis
SLA is affected by factors like Motivation, Self-confidence, Anxiety and so on.
Learners who suffer from anxiety or lack of motivation or negative attitude somehow switch off their comprehension mechanisms and so even if they are provided comprehensible input, they will not be able to process the input. Therefore a low affective filter is important.
(5) Monitor hypothesis
Both language learners and native speakers typically try to correct any errors in what they have just said. This is referred to as monitoring.
Krashen uses the term Monitoring (with a big M) to refer to the way the learner used learnt knowledge to improve utterances produced by means of acquired knowledge.