跨文化交際案例分析 - 下載本文

Case Study 1 Age and Status

兩位同事的矛盾使一家數據處理公司的總經理遇到了麻煩。一方是一位躊躇滿志的法裔加拿大小伙子,另一方是一位有特許簽證的年長的中國女性,而此前兩人確實很好的合作伙伴….. Case description:

A manager in a data-processing company was having difficulty dealing with a conflict between a young, ambitious French Canadian male and his co-worker, an older Chinese woman who was on a special visa from China. She had recently become uncooperative and had made it clear to the manager that she would not be willing to travel to the capital with her co-worker to hold discussion with legislators about a new product with great enthusiasm.

When the manager asked her what the problem was, he received no clear explanation. When he asked her co-worker, the young man had no insights to offer. The young French Canadian was clearly annoyed, however, that the Chinese woman was refusing to share her data with him. That meant he couldn’t make the presentation to the legislators because she had all the key data on her computer disks.

The manager repeated questions to her but her “problem” got nowhere. So he changed his approach. He began explaining his concerns, as manger and as spokesperson for the company, about the upcoming meeting with legislators. His explanation about his position was unemotional. In that climate she then felt she could explain her position. She revealed she felt that that as an older, and to her mind, more senior person, she should not be sent to the capitol with a younger employee who would do the presentation of material she had worked hard to develop. That would diminish her status, she felt. The general manger knew the root of his headache. Questions:

1.What do you think caused the conflict?

2. What would you do to resolve the conflict if you were the general manager?

矛盾沖突

這位年長的中國女士投入極大的熱情和精力開發產品.卻在最后的關鍵時刻拒絕與年輕的同事一同去向議員做推介:當經理和同事問其原因.她并未做任何明確的回答:而當經理改變策略,不再直接詢問原因,而是迂回地講起自己的困境時,她才道出自己的顧慮。 在這位資深年長的中國女士看來,同一位比她年輕的同事一同去國會,并且由對方來做推介會影響到她的地位和威信,因此她無法同意: 原因分析

造成這一矛盾的文化因素有兩方面.對地位、年齡的不同態度以及這種不同的表達方式。人對權力的認識因文化背景的不同而不同。根據霍夫斯特的調查研究,“低權力距離”國家的人強調個人的能力和信用,人與人之間權利和關系的平等,而.”高權力距離”國家,如中國、日本、緯國,強調地位、經驗、年齡、資歷等,人與人之間存在級別差距;因此在這位年輕的加拿大人看來,在工作上他與這位女士是平等的合作伙伴,并沒有地位的差別,自己也有能力參與項目并做最后報告。而在這位中國女士看來,以自己的年齡、資歷、以及工作中的付出,與一個年輕人一同去國會,并且由對方來做報告對她來說是一件丟面子的事: 另外.雙方表達方式的不同也導致了矛盾的加深。根據霍爾的理論,加拿大是“低語境”國家,中國屬于“高語境”文化國家,因此,當她的加拿大同事沒有充分考慮到她所處的位置.而是直接問她原因時,這位中國女士采用了婉轉回進的策略,沒有直接說出自己的想法。而當經理改變方法迂回地說到自己的難處時,在這種語境下她才說出自己的顧慮。

Low power distance \between rights and equality, and.\Japan, weft kingdom, emphasizing the status, experience, age, qualifications, existing gap between people level 。So in the young Canadian opinion, in the work he and the woman are equal partners, and the difference in no position, also has the ability to participate in project and do the last report. And in the Chinese women seem to, in their own age, qualifications, and work in pay, and a young man together to congress, and by each other to do the report for her is a lose face:

Outside. Both sides expressing way different led to the deepening of contradictions. According to the theory of hall, Canada is \\ 文化溝通

當與不同文化背景、年齡、地位的人進行跨文化交流合作時,我們應當充分了解對方價值觀中對這些個人因素的看法,決策前應采用合適的方式進行有效的協商,以便避免和化解因文化背景、價值觀不同引起的矛盾。本案例中的經理在理解她的難處之后,可以在全公司內正式的公布這位女士的工作成果,給予高度的認可.同時在議會的報告中也應體現出其工作的重要意義,使之得,得到應有的重視。

This case of manager in understanding her difficulty after can in all the company released within the formal the lady's work, to give high recognition. At the same time in the parliamentary report should reflect its importance, make, and get the attention it deserves.

Case Study 2 Praising Japanese in Public Workplaces (在工作場所當眾表揚日本人)

瓊斯先生(美國經理) 當眾表揚蘇琦木拓(日本員工)工作做得很棒,本以為蘇琦木拓會高興的接受,卻不料….. Case description:

American: Mr. Sugimoto, I have noticed that you are doing an excellent job on the assembly line. I hope that

the other workers notice how it should be done.

Japanese: (He is uneasy). Praise is not necessary. I am only doing my job. (He hopes other Japanese workers

do not hear.)

American: You are the finesse, most excellent, dedicated worker we have ever had at the Jones Corporation. Japanese: (He blushed and nods his head several times, and keeps working.)

American: Well, are you going to say “thank you,” Mr. Sugimoto, or just remain silent? Japanese: Excuse me, Mr. Jones … May I take leave for five minutes?

American: Sure. (He is annoyed and watched Sugimoto exit). I can’t believe how rude some Japanese

workers are. They seem to be disturbed by praise and don’t answer you … just silent.

Questions:

Why was the conversation between Mr. Jones and Mr. Sugimoto not so pleasant? Why did they have such different reactions towards praising in public workplaces? If you were Mr. Sugimoto, would you accept praise from Mr. Jones in public workplaces? If were Mr. Jones, how would you deal with the situation more appropriately?

分析

矛盾沖突

從對話中可以看出,瓊斯先生認為在其他工人面前表揚蘇奇木拓先生是對他工作的肯定.也是對他個人的認可,蘇奇木拓先生應該高興地接受,不必遮遮掩掩不好意思,更不應該一句話不說就走了。但瓊斯先生只是從美國強調個人的概念出發,卻不熟悉日本人是如何看待個人和集體的關系,不知道如何向日本同事表示欣賞和贊揚.結果適得其反。瓊斯先生和蘇奇木拓交流失敗的原因主要在于都對雙方的文化了解不深,特別是雙方對個人與集體關系的看法不同。

原因分析

在霍夫斯特的“個體取向與集體取向”53 個國家和地區的列表中美國排在第一位.而日本排在22 位,這意味著美國是非常強調個人主義的國家,而日本更注重的是集體。在美國鼓勵個人創斷,提倡竟爭.個人會因業績優異而受到上司表揚,這是一種典型的美國式做法。特別是如果在同事面前受到表揚,個人會覺得很自豪,因為成績得到了上級的認可,同時也在同事中間表現了自己,實現了 自我價值。在美國,受到表揚的人往往會說“謝謝”’以作回答。The United States is very stressed individualism country, and Japan are more focused on their collective. In the United States encourages individual creative, advocating competition. Individual will and excellent performance by boss for praise, this is a kind of typical American practices. Especially if in front of my colleagues have been praised, people will feel very proud, because the results obtained superior approbate, and also in among colleagues showed, realize the ego value. In the United States, who praised will often say \所以案例中的瓊斯先生認為蘇奇木拓先生也應該以這樣的方式接受表揚。出乎他意抖的是,那位受到表揚的日本工人對他的表揚感到不安,沒把表揚當回事:美國經理接著用更肯定的語氣維續表揚他,如用英語中的最高級形容詞“最優秀的”、“最杰出”、‘最勤奮”等等。使他更吃驚的是:他的這番贊揚之詞使那位日本工人更1 危臉,臉一下紅了起來,只是理頭干活.不再言語,僅僅點了兩下頭。對于這樣的回答或拒絕表揚.美國經理實在是無法理解,也無法忍受這種沉默不語,于是直截了當地向他發問道:“你打算說聲謝謝呢,還是要選擇繼續保待沉默呢?”責備他表現“沒禮貌”。The manager was unable to understand, also can't stand for the silent, then to straight out he hair asked: \continue the stay silent?\他所不知的是,日本是典型的集體主義國度,在日本個人要忠實于集體,集體內部的成員要團結一致不傾向于突出個人業績.而是強調集體協作。所以當蘇奇木拓先生在同事面前受到表揚時,非常地局促不安.只是低頭干自己的事情,甚至要求要離開五分鐘,沒有正面給瓊斯先生任何答復.因為他覺得這樣把他和所屬的集體分離開了.使他在同事面前失去了面子。另一方面.美國經理由于對日本文化特點的無知,公開表揚不僅把那位日本工人弄得無言以答,而且會失去在其他日本工人對他的尊敬。Japan is typical of collective socialist country, in Japanese individual should be faithful to the collective, the members of the collective to internal unity don't tend to outstanding individual performance. But emphasize the collective cooperation. So when SuJiMu Mr Extension in front of my colleagues when praised very ill at ease. Just do their own things down, even want to leave five minutes, no positive for Mr Jones any reply. Because he felt that he and the subordinate to the collective isolates. To his in front of my colleagues lost face. On the other hand. The manager because of Japanese culture characteristics of ignorance, public praise not only the Japanese workers make could answer, and will lose in the other Japanese workers to his respect.

從對話中也可以看出蘇奇木拓先生不接受當眾表揚,卻只是保持沉默,甚至要走開,沒有把他的不滿當眾表達出來。這樣的行為使得瓊斯先生認為日本員工不禮貌。這一交際失致和日美兩國交流方式不同有很大關系。根據霍爾(Hail )的“高語境”和”低語境”理論,日本是典型的高語境國家,交流方式含蓄委婉,不會輕易在眾人面前表達不滿,會更多的依賴于非言語交流.\context\and \tactful, not easily in the presence of all express discontent, will be more dependent on

non-verbal communication.如蘇奇木拓先生不作回答保持沉慶,只是干自己的工作,以此表示對當眾表揚的不滿。而美國屬于”低語境”國家,習慣直接的語言交流方式,. And the United States belongs to \當蘇奇木拓先生顯得不安時,球斯先生卻說“你打算說謝謝呢,還是要選擇沉默?”。當蘇奇木拓先生要求離開時,瓊斯先生就認為沒有任何回答就離開是不禮貌的。

文化溝通

雙方應該對彼此的文化有所了解,應該清楚兩種文化對個人的不同看法和不同的交流方式.不要總是從自己的出發點看問題。瓊斯先生應該知道最好不要當眾表揚某個日本人,而是應該私下單獨表揚,或者會開表揚某個集體或團隊;要清楚日本人的交流方式比較委婉間接,為了集體的和諧他們通常不會在公開場合表示不滿。而蘇奇木拓先生也應該了解美國時個人的重視,公開表揚個人是對他能力的認可;美國人更喜歡直接的語言交流,有什么想法要說出來,而不是要保持沉默或是回避Both sides should understand the culture for each other, should be clear that two kinds of culture on personal different views and different way of

communication. Don't always look at problems from their starting point. Mr Jones should know better not praise in public a Japanese, but should praise alone, or will open praise a collective or team; Want to be clear about the Japanese way of

communication more tactful indirectly, to the harmony of collective they usually don't publicly expressed dissatisfaction. And SuJiMu Mr Should know the extension of the individual attention when, public praise for his personal ability is the approval;

Americans prefer direct language exchange, have what idea to say, but not to remain silent or avoid

Case 3 A British General Manager in Thailand 英國總經理在泰國

一位英國總經理來到泰國上任,到任之初,沒想到使用什么樣的車上班這個小問題給他帶來了不小的煩惱……. Case description:

A British general manager upon arrival in Thailand refused to take his predecessor’s car. The Thai finance manager asked the new GM what type of Mercedes he would like, then, The GM asked for a Suzuki or a Mini, anything that could be handled easily in the congested traffic in Bangkok.

Three weeks later the GM called the finance manger and asked about prospects for the delivery of his car. The Thai lost his reserve for a moment and exclaimed: “we can get you a new Mercedes by tomorrow, but Suzuki take much, much longer.” The GM asked him to see what he could do to speed up the process. After four weeks the GM asked to see the purchase order for the car. The purchasing department replied that, because it would take so long to get a small car, they had decided to order a Mercedes.

The GM’s patience had run out. At the first management meeting he brought the issue up and asked for an explanation. Somewhat shyly, the predominantly Thai management team explained that they could hardly come to work on bicycle. Questions:

Why did the GM have difficulties in getting a Suzuki or Mini?

Why did the management team say they could hardly come to work on bicycle? 原因分析

泰國是等級觀念很強的國家.泰國傳統文化價值觀的核心,如家長制、權威索拜,等級觀念等是人們日常行為所公認的準則,甚至是一種“生活方式”人們認為社會等級制度時人有好處.所以不會向社

會等級制度挑戰。泰國的社會生活強調等級觀念,依賴于等級關系。而在公司等社會機構中,強調正式的組織結構,各個等級保持一定的穩定性。Thailand is hierarchy strong country. Thailand traditional cultural values of the core, such as the patriarchal system, and the authority and worship, level is the concept of the people daily behavior of accepted standards, or even a \people have good. So will not give in to the social hierarchy challenge. Thailand's emphasis on social life hierarchy, rely on hierarchy relationship. And in the company and other social organizations, emphasizes formal organization structure, each level maintain certain stability.因此,在本案例中,最后泰國職員的解釋是,如果總經理的用車降低水準,公司所有職員的用車要整體降級,The general manager of the lower level fruit transport, the company all staff transport to the whole downgraded,最終有些職員必須要騎自行車上班,而這是他們不愿也無法做到的。在英國文化的價位觀中,權力之間的距離很小.具體工作之外,人們之間是平等的,公司中的領導者用車是為了工作,為了提高的業績,因此英國經理看來.交通工具的選用是為了提高工作效率.每個人都有選擇的自由,自己選用什么樣的車與公司其他人無關。In British culture on the price, the distance between the power is small. The specific work outside, between people is equal, the leader is in order to transport the work, in order to improve the performance, so Britain the manager looked. Traffic tools in order to improve the work efficiency is choose. Everyone has the freedom of choice, oneself choose what kind of car company has nothing to do with others.

文化溝通

本案例中,如果英國經理堅持一意孤行,很容易引起泰國員工的集體反感,會有被架空的危險。在跨國組織中,遇到這種情況應從實際環境,即地理環境及當地文化習俗,占主導成員的文化背境出發,考慮大多數人的習慣和意見,做出不影響團隊成員工作積極性和工作業績的決策

第 頁

case 4

怎樣理解微笑?

微笑是友好的表示,理應得到友好的回應。但是,向別人道歉時微笑是否顯得適當?不同國家的人有不同的理解。處理不當,很可能帶來意想不到的結果??

Case description:

Peter is the general manager of an American company in China. Recently, Jun Chen, one of the Chinese managers made a mistake at work that caused some

difficulties that required a lot of effort to fix. Jun Chen was very upset about what had happened, and came to Peter’s office to make a formal apology. Jun Chen went into Peter’s office after being told to, smiling before he spoke. “Peter, I’ve been feeling very upset about the trouble I’ve caused for the company. I’m here to apologize for my mistake. I’m terribly sorry about it and I want you to know that it will never happen again.” Jun Chen said, looking at Peter with the smile he had been wearing since he walked into the office. Peter found it hard to accept the apology. He looked at Jun Chen, and asked, “are you sure?”

“Yes, I’m very sorry and I promise this won’t happen again,” Jun Chen said, with a smile even broader than before.





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